aĝ- (*heĝ-)

aĝ- (*heĝ-)
    aĝ- (*heĝ-)
    English meaning: to lead, *drive cattle
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “treiben” (actually probably “mit geschwungenen Armen treiben”), ‘schwingen”, in Bewegung setzen, fũhren”
    Grammatical information: originally limited to the present stem.
    Note: old laryngeal centum ḫ- > a-, e- : satem ḫ- > s- ;
    Material: aĝō: O.Ind. ájati “drive”, ajá- m. “a drove, troop; a driver”; üjí - m./f. “running match, combat”, Av. azaiti “ drive, lead away “, Arm. acem “ lead, bring “; maybe Alb.Gheg (*ἄγω), ago “leader, chief”; ag- “dawn, beginning of the day”, agon “to dawn, start the day” : Lat. ago agere egi actum “to set in motion, drive; of animals, to drive or hunt”, agon -onis m. “a contest in the public games”, agonalia -ium and -orum n. “a festival of Janus”. Gk. ἄγω “lead” (Aor. Aor. ἤγαγον, ἤξα are new), Lat. agō “ to set in motion, drive, lead, negotiate “ (Pf. ēg ī with ablaut innovation), Osc. Imper. actud = Umbr. aitu “ agito “, Osc. acum “ agere “, O.Ir. ad-aig (*aget) “ adigit “, O.Welsh agit, hegit, more recently ëyt (*agīti), besides the strong inflection in Welsh Corn. Bret. a (*aget) “goes”; t- Preterit O.Ir. ro-daacht “ driven away “, Welsh aeth (*ag-t) “to put in motion” etc., see Pedersen KG. II 451 following, O.Ir. üin “ activity, play “ (from *agnis), Gallo-Rom. *and-agnis “ big step “, Fr. andain “ swath, scythe slash “, aFr. “wide step”, O.N. aka “driving” (Preterit ōk like O.Ind. Gram. üja); O.E. ac “however, but, yet” (wörtl. “go!” like Lat. age); Toch. B ak-, AB ük- “travel, lead”; Maybe Alb. ec- “walk, travel on foot”, vocative hec, eja “come!”. to- participle: ἀκτός, Lat. üctus “ put in motion, moved, driven, tended, conducted”, *amb (i)-aktos, actually, “ sent around (: O.Ir. imm-aig) messenger, servant “ in Gaul. (-Lat.) ambactus “ vassal, slave “, Welsh amaeth “ servus arans “ (from Celt. derives Goth. andbahts, O.H.G. ambaht “ servant “, from which the kinship with Ger. Amt). As IE Instrumental noun in-trü here O.Ind. aṣ̌ ṭ rü “goad to drive the livestock “, Av. aštrü “ whip, scourge “. Maybe Tokharian: B ük n. “zeal” (Adams 35), AB ük- “lead, guide, drive” (36). lengthened grade formations: O.Ind. üjí -ḥ m. f. “race, fight “, M.Ir. üg (gen. üga, u- stem) “fight”, üga, üige “leaders” (cf also Gaul. PN Ago-mürus = O.Ir. ágmar “warlike”; Comügius), Lat. only in compounds: ambügēs, around “ a roundabout way, winding. Hence, in speech, etc., either circumlocution or obscurity “ (conservative stem like O.Ind. áj-ē “to lead” = Lat. agī Inf. pass., and like O.Ind. aj- in pr̥tanǘj- “ in the fight pulling “, however, with stretch in the composition), indügēs and indügo ,-inis “ surrounding and driving of game “, co-ügulum “ a means of coagulation, a coagulum or coagulator (the curdled milk in the stomach of a sucking animal, the stomach itself, etc.), rennet or runnet; the curdled milk; that which holds or binds together, a bond, tie “, O.Ind. samüja-ḥ “meeting, society”, Gk. ἀγωγός “leading, leadingly “, ἀγωγή “guidance, management, freight”, Hes. ὤγανα ‘spokes”, στρατ-ηγός (see under). about Dor. ἆγον (O.Ind. üjam) “I lead” see, nevertheless, Schwyzer Gk. I 654, 4. o- stem: ved. ajá-ḥ ̣ “ activity, train; driver “, Gk. ἀγός “ leader, military leader “, στρατ- ᾱγός, Att. Ion. στρατ-ηγός “military leader”, λοχᾱγός (originally Doric) “ leader “, Lat. prōdigo -igere -egi -actum “to drive forth; to spend, waste”, prōd-igus “profuse, extravagant; rich, abounding in. adv. prodige “ (from prōd-igere), abiga “ plant which has the power of producing abortion; ground-pine “ (“ close to miscarriage “ from ab-igere = ἀπάγω, O.Ind. apa-ájati “ to drive away, drive off “). i̯o- stem: Ir. aige “race”, O.Ind. in pr̥tanüjyam “competition”. aĝmn,̥ aĝmos: O.Ind. ájman- n. “ road, train “, ájma-ḥ ds. (however, about jman, parijman-, pr̥thu-jman-, jma-yǘ - s. ĝhÞem- “ earth “): Lat. agmen “ a driving movement or a mass in (orderly) movement, a stream, band, train; esp. miLith., an army on the march “ (to neologism agō for *ammen), exümen “ a swarm; a throng, crowd, shoal. (2) the tongue of a balance; testing, consideration “; then “ to check, to weigh; to consider “ (from *agsmen), ammentum (*agmen-to-m) “ in loop form - possibly in the middle of the spear - fixed with throw straps “; maybe (Schw. Gk. I 49210) with o- graduation Gk. ὄγμος “ field furrow, road of heavenly bodies; swath by mowing “. lo- stem: O.Ind. ajirá- “ quick, nimble “ (however, Lat. agilis “ flexible, nimble “ is a neologism); Gk. ἀγέλη “ herd, crowd “, Lat. agolum “ shepherd’s stick “. Gk. ἀγών “ race, competition “; ἄγυια ‘street” (part. perf.), from which about newer *ἄγεια Lat. agēa “ a gangway in a ship”; lak. Cret. ätol. ἀγνέω “ leads, brings “, ep. Ion. ἀγῑνέμεναι, ἀγῑνέω ds. (:ἀγνέω and ἄγω, like ὀρῑ-νω towards ὄρ-νυ-μι and ὠρ-όμην, also from an ī̆ ending root form; cf Schwyzer Gk. I 694, 696). about ἡγεμών see Schwyzer Gk. I 5227 and under süg-. Lat. rēmex, rēmigüre , rēmigium, lītigüre “ a rower, oarsman “ and other verbs in -(i)güre. - Presumably Lat. indigitēs “ the local divinities and heroes “ (indigitüre “ a divinity call “, indigitümenta “invocation formulae”), as *end(o)-aget- “ the indigenous, native “. formation development to “to weigh” (from “ bring in oscillation “) in Lat. exagium “ a weighing, weight; a balance “, exigere [ex + ago] “to drive out, push forth, thrust out, take out, expel: -- To weigh, try, prove, measure, examine, adjust, estimate, consider”: among other things “ weigh, measure “, exüctus “ precise, accurate, exact “, exiguus “ strict, exact, scanty, small, little, petty, short, poor, mean, inadequate, inconsiderable, paltry “, exīlis (*exag- slis) “ strict, narrow, thin, slender, lank, small, meagre, poor “, exümen (see above), agīna “ the opening in the upper part of a balance, in which the tongue moves “ (formation as for example coquīna ), Gk. ἄγειν also “weigh” (with acc. of the weight), ἄξιος “weighing as much, of like value, worth as much as” (from *ἄκτιος, on the grounds of *ag-ti-s “weight”, actually:) “ from suitable weight “, hence, “ worth, solemnly “, ἀντάξιος “worth just as much as, equally”. still cf WH. I 9, 10, 24 about acnua, üctus quadrütus “ a field measure of 120 feet in the square “, and actūtum ‘straight away, immediately, forthwith “, agüsō “footman, driver, hostler “, agō, -ōnis “of the priests killing the sacrificial animal” (from agere in meaning “ sacrifice”), agōnium “ a victim, beast for sacrifice “ below likewise Here maybe Gaul. exacum “ the herb centaury “ if prescribed for *exagum (= *exago-” pure-craving “). But better to *ak̂- “ sharp “, see there. Further belong here: aĝes-, ak̂s . . . “ (fulcrum, pivot:) axis - shoulder “: O.Ind. ákṣ̌a-ḥ “ axis”, Gk. ἅξων ds., ἅμ-αξα “carriage, wagon” Gl. 12, 217; KZ. 40, 217 f.);
    Note: common Gk. -ĝh- > - ξ- phonetic mutation Lat. axis “axis” = Lith. ašì s, O.Pruss. assis, O.C.S. osъ f. ds .; O.H.G. ahsa, Ger. Achse, O.E. eax ds .; in. ǫxull (from urg. *ahsulaz) “axis”; M.Ir. ais “axis” (*aksi-lü in Welsh echel f. “axis”, Bret. ahel). Lat. üla ‘shoulder”, from which the usual meaning “wing”, from *agslü (cf Dimin. axilla “armpit”) = in. ǫxl, O.E. eaxl, O.H.G. ahsala, Ger. Achsel, where near lengthened grade Dutch oksel ds., and without l- formant: O.H.G. uochisa, M.H.G. uohse, ũehse and O.H.G. uochsana, O.E. ōxn “armpit”, in. ōst f., ōstr m. “Cervical pit”, O.E. ōcusta, ōxta m., Eng. oxter “armpit”; av ašayụ̈ gen. Du. “ of both shoulders “, Arm. anut “ shoulder pit “ (at first from *asnut “). maybe zero grade in Alb.Gheg (*aksla-të) sqetla “armpit”. aĝ-rü “ rush, hunt “, aĝ-ro-s “ driving, rushing “: O.Ind. in ghasē-ajra- “ to drive consuming, exciting appetite “, Av. (vehr-kąm) azrō-daiδīm “ doing the hunt, outgoing on prey (she-wolf) “; Gk. ἄγρᾱ, Ion. ἄγρη “ hunt, catch “, πάναγρος “ catching everything, catching “, κρεάγρα “ meat tongs “, πυράγρα “ tongs “, ποδάγρα “ prostration, enuflection “, Μελέαγρος originally name of a “ demon which as a quick-tempered fever seizes the limbs “ (?), ἀγρεύς “ hunter “, ἀγρεύω “ catch “; but ἀγρέω “ take “ according to Schwyzer Gk. I 7271 from *ἁ-γρο-; Ir. ür n. “ defeat “ (*agron) “ battle, fight “ (*agrü), actually, “ rush “, O.Corn. hair “ destruction, injury, mischief, harm, misfortune, disaster, loss, detriment, calamity “, O.Bret. airou PI. “ an overthrow, destruction, ruin, defeat, slaughter, massacre, butchery, carnage “, Gaul. VN Veragri “ the immense combatants “. maybe Alb. Agron “appellation of an Illyrian king”. aĝ-ro-s “ field, camp “ (to *agō as herd to drive wie, also originally “ place where the cattle is being driven, pasture “). O.Ind. ájra-ḥ ‘surface, camp, fields “ (without respect on agriculture), Gk. ἀγρός “ field, land “ (in contrast to town), Lat. Umbr. ager “field”, Goth. (etc.) akrs, O.H.G. ackar, ahhar, Ger. Acker (Acker and O.E. æcer also a certain land measure, “ so much a bottom plate can oxen plow during one day “), Arm. art “field” (with puzzling t about *atgr-, *atr-, see Pedersen KZ. 39, 352; thereof artak’s “ out “, prefix arta-” from”). O.Ind. ajríya- “ located in the plain “ = Gk. ἄγριος “ on the field, outside growing or living, wildly “; ἀγρότερος “ wildly living “, Lat. agrestis “ a countryman, peasant, rustic, rural, crude “. (about Goth. akran, dt. Eckern, however, see under *ōg- “grow”.) maybe Alb. egër “wild, rural, crude”, ager “donkey (pulling a wagon)”, Illyr. TN Agrianes.
    References: WP. I 35 f., WH. I 22 f., 89, H. Reichelt WuS. 12, 112.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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